Can-dos as lesson objectives (Can-do objectives) are included in the following teaching materials on the ‘Minna no Kyozai’ Website:
- ・JFS B2 Teaching Materials
- ・JFS Reading Activities
- ・JFS Lesson Plans
- ・Kyokasho o Tsukuro Classroom Activities (only in parts)
If you have Can-do objectives, you can deliver lessons with clear learning objectives shared between teacher and learners that say ‘You will actually be able to do this!’
How to use Can-do objectives
Can-dos describe ‘what you can actually do using Japanese in a real situation’, rather than acquiring knowledge of sentence patterns, grammar, and so on. Before starting an activity, check the Can-do. It is OK to translate a Can-do into the first language of the learners or a lingua franca. After the activity has finished, if there is assessment (self assessment, assessment by the teacher, or peer assessment by the learners), make the focus of assessment whether learners have become able to do the Can-do objective, rather than knowledge of sentence patterns or vocabulary. There is a sample of an assessment grid and the procedure for a lesson with a Can-do objective in ‘JFS Lesson Plans’.
‘Related Can-dos’ and ‘Can-dos in the same category’
When considering the learning required in order to attain Can-dos and assessment, ‘Related Can-dos’ and ‘Can-dos in the same category’ will be useful. If you click the Can-do objective, you will be directed to the ‘Minna no Can-do’ website , and you will be able to see the ‘Related Can-dos’ and ‘Can-dos in the same category’ for that Can-do.
In ‘Related Can-dos’, Can-dos can be seen that show the abilities required in order to attain the Can-do objectives. It is useful for deciding assessment approach and criteria, and considering what kind of learning is required in order to attain the Can-do objectives. For example, look at the Can-do objective ‘Can write in short simple sentences a letter, e-mail, etc. to thank someone for their help or hospitality’. In ‘Related Can-dos’, you can find the following:
- ・Has a sufficient vocabulary for the expression of basic communicative needs. （Competence Can-do）
- ・Can recall and rehearse an appropriate set of phrases from his/her repertoire. （Strategy Can-do）
- ・Can tell a story or describe something in a simple list of points. （Competence Can-do）
I see. When you write a thank you mail in short simple sentences, you need those kind of abilities, don’t you? It looks really useful for when you’re thinking about learning aims, and assessment approach and criteria.
＜Can-dos in the same category＞
Can-dos are divided into a range of categories, such as ‘addressing audiences’, ‘watching TV and film’, and ‘transactions to obtain goods and services’. Using ‘Can-dos in the same category’ you can view Can-dos in the same category divided by level. You can clearly understand a Can-do’s contents and level if you compare it to the Can-dos in the levels above and below.
For example, look at the Can-do objective ‘Can write in short simple sentences a letter, e-mail, etc. to thank someone for their help or hospitality’. The category this Can-do belongs to is ‘correspondence’. In ‘Can-dos in the same category’ you can see the following:
I see. Even though the objective is the same ‘writing an e-mail’, if I compare the Can-dos in the levels above and below, I can clearly understand what kind of thing is the objective at A2 level.